ARC 3682 : ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY 2

SAMPLE EXAM
Spring 2001 / Grondzik


FINAL EXAM

Instructions: this exam is closed-book; 2 hour duration. Write your name on the exam. You may refer to one 3" x 5" index card with your own notes -- but to no other materials. Read each question with care and be sure to answer all parts of multiple-part questions. Place all answers in the spaces provided and/or on the back of these sheets. You may circle or otherwise indicate answers where appropriate. Provide complete, precise, and legible answers. The numbers in parentheses indicate the relative point value of each question.

# 1. (3)

Indicate (by circling) which (one or more) of the following statements regarding the building systems design concept known as "diversity" are correct:

(A) diversity applies only to the design of building plumbing systems
(B) diversity applies only to the design of building fire protection systems
(C) diversity requires that designers use of a number of different systems to solve the same problem
(D) diversity considers the probability of simultaneous use of multiple components in any given system
(E) diversity is the basis for the chemical theory of smoke migration
(F) diversity applies to a variety of building systems (plumbing, egress, elevators, ...)
(G) diversity calculations consider multiple systems, but always look only at a particular point in time
(H) diversity considers only a single system, but always over a wide period of time

 

#2. (3)

Standpipe and hose systems are classified into three main categories identified as I, II and III. These system classifications are based upon:

(A) whether the system is designed to be automatic, manual, or semiautomatic
(B) the height of the building in which the standpipe is to be installed (low, mid, or high rise)
(C) whether the system is designed as a wet pipe, dry pipe, or preaction system
(D) the type of user (occupant, professional, or either/both) expected to employ the system
(E) the extinguishing medium to be contained within the standpipe (water, inert gas, or chemical)
(F) the type of fire (class of combustible material) for which the standpipe may safely be used

 

#3. (3)

Passive heating and cooling systems are architecturally classified as direct, indirect , or isolated gain/loss systems. This particular means of classification is based upon:

(A) whether the system has a short, medium or long time-lag factor
(B) the relationship of the main heat transfer elements of the system to the occupied spaces of the building
(C) the relationship of the working elements of the system to the primary mode of heat transfer (radiation, ...)
(D) whether the system is fully-passive, semi-passive, or not-at-all-passive in operation
(E) whether the system is part of the original design, is a retrofit, or is a totally new addition

 

#4. (5)

The list below contains steps that may or may not occur during the normal operation of a conventional automatic sprinkler system. CROSS OFF any steps that do apply to operation of a wet pipe system during a fire.

(A) a measured amount of Halon flows from "sprinkler" heads onto the fire
(B) heat from a fire causes a sprinkler head to open (normally just one sprinkler head)
(C) heat from a fire activates a smoke or flame detector
(D) water is manually shut off after the fire is extinguished
(E) water does not fill pipes IF an operator activates an "abort" button
(F) the open head releases a fill gas and pressure in the piping drops
(G) the detector circuit opens a water control valve
(H) reduced pressure in the piping causes a water control valve to open and fill the pipes
(I) water flows from the open sprinkler head (normally just a single head)
(J) water flows from all the sprinkler heads in the room (or zone)
(K) the fire is extinguished by water flow from the sprinkler head

 

#5. (8)

Smoke from a fire situation may present numerous hazards to occupants and property if it is allowed to spread freely through a building due to lack of an adequate smoke control approach. Identify four common smoke hazards in the first column below -- using appropriate technical terminology. In the second column, explain each hazard in day-to-day terms understandable to a non-professional. In the third column, enter a "P" or an "O" to indicate whether the hazard is primarily to property or to occupants.

SMOKE HAZARD   EXPLANATION OF HAZARD   "P" or "O"
1.        
2.        
3.        
4.        

 

#6. (5)

The multi-step thermal process known as the greenhouse effect is the basis for all helio-thermal systems -- including passive and active solar heating systems. CROSS OUT those statements in the list below that do NOT belong in a description of the greenhouse effect.

(A) long-wave radiation from the sun enters a system through a glazed aperture
(B) short-wave radiation from the sun enters a system through a glazed aperture
(C) most radiation entering the system is absorbed and converted to heat
(D) most radiation entering the system is absorbed by plants and converted to biological growth
(E) as radiation enters the system the temperature of an absorber increases
(F) as radiation enters the system photosynthesis converts radiation to chemical energy
(G) chemical energy is used to produce biomass
(H) as the temperature of the absorber increases heat is transferred to other parts of the system
(I) heat is trapped within the system because glazing generally absorbs and transmits long-wave radiation
(J) heat is trapped within the system because glazing generally reflects long-wave radiation

 

#7. (5)

The adjacent sketch represents a typical passive solar heating system. All practical solar heating systems include five common elements: 1) an aperture, 2) an absorber, 3) heat storage,
4) some means of heat distribution, and 5) some means of control.

Clearly identify these 5 elements in the adjacent system diagram.

 

 

#8. (3)

"Potable" water is best described as:

(A) groundwater that is cool enough to serve as a passive heat sink
(B) water that is conveyed to a point of disposal by a sanitary drainage system
(C) water that has been removed from air within a building by passive desiccant cooling
(D) water treated by ultraviolet light to be free of all biological, mineral, or chemical impurities
(E) water that is fit for human consumption (i.e. for drinking and cooking)
(F) chemically-treated cooling tower water (such as used at the Mag Lab)

Potable water is also sometimes called _ _ _ _ _ tic water.

 

#9. (6)

The table below deals with various aspects of sanitary drainage, storm drainage, and water supply piping networks. AComplete@ the table by circling the correct entries in columns 2, 3 and 4.

Col. 1 Col. 2 Col. 3 Col. 4
Network Flow Mechanism Requires Traps? Design Governed by Codes?
Storm Drainage (gravity) (pressurized) (yes) (no) (yes) (no)
Water Supply (gravity) (pressurized) (yes) (no) (yes) (no)
Sanitary Drainage (gravity) (pressurized) (yes) (no) (yes) (no)

 

#10. (4)

List the 2 fire protection design objectives (design intent) you consider most important for the design of the enclosed courtyards that are being planned to replace open spaces between the wings of the FAMU School of Architecture building. Indicate WHY each objective would be important in the stated context

OBJECTIVE (Design Intent)   REASON WHY IMPORTANT IN CONTEXT
1.    
2.    

 

#11. (4)

The following claims to be correct listing/sequence of the stages of fire growth and spread in a building. In fact, some of the items in the list are correct and some are incorrect. CIRCLE those items that actually belong in the list.

minor fire >>> fire in a room >>> class I fire >>> room fire >>> class II fire >>> building fire >>> terminal fire >>> class III fire

 

#12. (6)

There are a number of passive cooling system configurations -- including: (A) direct loss systems; (B) indirect loss systems; (C) isolated loss systems; (D) convective loss systems; and (E) evaporative loss systems. Indicate by labeling with the appropriate letter, which of the following diagrams best represents each of these listed system types.

   
         
     
         

 

#13. (6)

There are a number of passive heating system configurations -- including: (A) direct gain systems; (B) Trombe wall systems; (C) isolated gain systems; (D) water wall systems; and (E) heat-loss reduction systems. Indicate by labeling with the appropriate letter, which of the following diagrams best represents each of these listed system types.

   
         
     
         

 

#14. (4)

Complete the following sentences:

(A) a helioelectrical process converts ________________________ to _____________________ energy

(B) a photovoltaic process converts __________________________ to _____________________ energy

(C) a heliochemical process converts _________________________ to _____________________ energy

(D) a heliothermal process converts __________________________ to _____________________ energy

 

#15. (5)

Match each of the solar energy utilization devices listed below with the type of application that is most likely to utilize that particular device.

DEVICE   SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION
(A) PV module   (1) passive space heating
(B) concentrating collector   (2) space cooling
(C) water-based flat plate collector   (3) domestic water heating
(D) air-based flat plate collector   (4) generation of electricity
(E) phase change materials   (5) active space heating

 

#16. (3)

A growing concern for effective smoke control approaches in high-rise buildings has led to increased use of which of the following strategies:

(A) use of fire-rated doors at the entrances to emergency egress stairwells
(B) use of air-lock type vestibules at the entrances to emergency egress stairways
(C) the addition of wet-pipe standpipes in almost all emergency egress stairways
(D) the use of radiant floor heating systems in emergency egress stairways to increase stack effect
(E) the use of special "egress" elevators to evacuate a building rather than stairways

 

#17. (6)

Complete the table below -- dealing with sanitary drainage, storm drainage, and water supply piping -- by entering the correct name for the different portions of the piping systems noted in the table.

System Type   Major Vertical Pipes are Called?   Horizontal Pipe at the Lowest Point in a Building is Called?
Storm Drainage        
Water Supply        
Sanitary Drainage        

 

#18. (3)

The "fire triangle" is a way of remembering the
three components required for combustion.

Label the vertices of the adjacent fire triangle
to identify these components.

 

 

#19. (6)

Molecular dispersion is only one of several ways that smoke may spread through a building in the event of a fire. For each of the situations described below, indicate which smoke spread mechanism you believe should receive the most concern and attention during design -- and the reason why you feel it is the most important in that particular situation.

SITUATION ONE: a ten-story office building (each floor with a single central HVAC system) with two fire stairs and an elevator bank. Assume that a fire occurs on the first floor and you are concerned about the ability of people to use the fire stairs to exit the building:

Mechanism of most concern: _______________________________

Reason: _________________________________________________________________________________________

SITUATION TWO: a one-story office building with no HVAC system (cooling is by natural ventilation); each work area has a 5 foot tall partition separating it from other offices; there is a central fire exit path. Assume that a fire can occur anywhere in the work area and you are concerned with people using the exit path to leave the building:

Mechanism of most concern: _______________________________

Reason: _________________________________________________________________________________________

SITUATION THREE: a twenty-story office building (each floor with its own central HVAC system) with two fire stairs and an elevator bank. Assume that a fire occurs on the fifteenth floor and you are concerned with people on the fourteenth floor of the building:

Mechanism of most concern: ______________________________

Reason: _________________________________________________________________________________________

 

#20. (4)

Portable fire extinguishers are classified according to the type of fire that they are intended to be used against. Complete the following list:

(A) Class "A" fire extinguishers are intended for use with fires that involve: _____________________________

(B) Class "B" fire extinguishers are intended for use with fires that involve: _____________________________

(C) Class "C" fire extinguishers are intended for use with fires that involve: _____________________________

(D) Class "D" fire extinguishers are intended for use with fires that involve: _____________________________

 

#21. (3)

The terms "cells", "modules", and "arrays" are commonly used with which of the following energy systems:

(A) wind energy systems
(B) non-renewable fossil energy systems
(C) sacred hearth systems
(D) geothermal heat pump systems
(E) photovoltaic energy systems

 

#22. (5)

Passive cooling often proves to be a difficult design task because natural sources of cooling (actually heat sinks) are diffuse and difficult to use during hot periods of the year. Name four natural cooling sources (heat sinks) that are commonly used in passive cooling systems:

_________________________, ______________________, ______________________, and __________________________.

By contrast, almost all passive heating systems use a powerful and generally available heat source: ________________.

 


COMPREHENSIVE QUESTIONS

The following questions are representative of the types of questions that might be encountered on the Architectural Registration Examination, Division G: Mechanical, Plumbing, Electrical & Acoustical Systems. Indicate the correct answer for each question. Each question is worth two points.

(C-1) Thermal comfort conditions as intended by ASHRAE are most likely to be provided when a designer follows:

(1) local code requirements
(2) American Institute of Architects codes
(3) good design practice and standards
(4) the suggestions of the local fire marshal

 

(C-2) In a typical office-type building, there will usually be:

(1) one thermostat per HVAC zone
(2) two to four thermostats per HVAC zone
(3) more than four thermostats per HVAC zone
(4) no thermostats per HVAC zone

 

(C-3) If the total thermal resistance of a wall or roof is increased:

(1) design heat gain and loss will decrease
(2) design heat gain and loss will increase
(3) design heat gain and loss will not change
(4) design heat gain will decrease and heat loss will increase

 

(C-4) Which of the following fan coil distribution arrangements will provide the greatest flexibility and occupant comfort at the lowest energy/operating cost:

(1) a three-pipe arrangement
(2) a two-pipe arrangement
(3) a four-pipe arrangement
(4) a series, three-pipe arrangement

 

(C-5) Design of which of the following building systems is most likely to be governed by local or national codes:

(1) plumbing systems
(2) indoor air quality systems
(3) active heating/cooling systems
(4) passive heating/cooling systems

 

(C-6) A typical thermal resistance (R value) for a one-inch thickness of common building insulation materials is:

(1) R = 4 (hr sq ft deg F/Btu)
(2) R = 40 (hr sq ft deg F/Btu)
(3) R = 0.4 (hr sq ft deg F/Btu)
(4) R = 400 (hr sq ft deg F/Btu)

 

(C-7) A typical code-maximum permitted travel distance from any point in a building to a properly located portable fire extinguisher is:

(1) 15 feet
(2) 75 feet
(3) 750 feet
(4) 1000 feet

 

(C-8) Which of the following HVAC systems is most likely to provide acceptable comfort and indoor air quality conditions without excessive energy use if installed in a multi-tenant, low-rise professional office building:

(1) a well-designed single zone system
(2) a well-designed variable air volume (VAV) system
(3) a well-designed terminal reheat system
(4) a well-designed all-water fan coil system

 

(C-9) "Hunter" curves are used in which one of the following building system design situations:

(1) finding outside air ventilation rates
(2) finding solar collector array sizes
(3) finding water supply system diversity
(4) finding thermal comfort conditions

 

(C-10) A "flat-plate" solar collector will:

(1) have equal aperture and absorber areas
(2) be installed within 5 degrees of horizontal
(3) use no heat transfer fluid
(4) be used only in solar cooling applications

 

(C-11) Which of the following HVAC systems is properly described as an air-water type system:

(1) a local, through-the-wall system
(2) a variable air volume (VAV) system
(3) a dual-duct system
(4) an induction unit system

 

(C-12) A typical shading coefficient (SC) for a commercially-available window unit would be:

(1) between 1.0 and 0.4
(2) between 1.0 and 10.0
(3) between 0.1 and 0.01
(4) between 10 and 100

 

(C-13) Which of the following central HVAC systems is most likely to present ductwork distribution space and coordination problems:

(1) a terminal reheat system
(2) a variable air volume (VAV) system
(3) a multi-zone system
(4) an induction unit system

 

(C-14) Which of the following chiller types has the highest coefficient of performance (COP):

(1) an absorption chiller
(2) a vapor compression chiller

 

(C-15) Which of the following lists represents the components found in a typical air-handling unit:

(1) fan, filter, heating/cooling coils
(2) fan, filter, compressor, condenser
(3) fan, filter, coils, thermostat
(4) condenser, evaporator, expansion valve, compressor


Last updated 12 January 2001
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